• Common Name: European Starling
  • Scientific Name: Sturnus vulgaris
  • Appearance: Medium-sized songbird with a thick body, short tail and long, slender bill. Adults feature glossy black plumage with metallic sheen and white spots in winter; legs are pink; while their bills vary between yellow during breeding season and dark at other times.

Habitat and Distribution

  • Native Range: Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
  • Introduced Range: North America, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
  • Preferred Habitat: Urban areas, farmlands, open woodlands, and grasslands. They possess remarkable adaptability, enabling them to flourish in a wide range of environments.
    Pest profile starling

    Life Cycle

    • Reproduction: Starlings breed from March to July. Females lay 4-6 eggs, which hatch in about 12 days. Both parents feed the chicks, which fledge about three weeks after hatching.
    • Longevity: In the wild, starlings typically live for 2-3 years, but some can live up to 15 years.


    • Feeding Habits: Omnivorous, feeding on insects, fruits, grains, and seeds. They often forage in flocks and can cause significant damage to crops.
    • Roosting: Known for forming large, noisy roosts in urban and suburban areas. These bird roosts can house thousands of birds at one time and produce considerable noise and droppings.

    Economic Impact

    • Agricultural Damage: Starlings are notorious for damaging crops, particularly grains, fruits, and berries. They can also affect livestock by consuming and contaminating animal feed.
    • Structural Damage: Their droppings are acidic and can corrode buildings, monuments, and vehicles. Starlings also nest in buildings and other structures, causing further damage.
    • Public Health: Starlings may transmit diseases, including histoplasmosis – an airborne fungal infection which affects lung tissue in areas where droppings accumulate – to humans through contact.

    Control Methods

    • Habitat Modification: Reduce food sources by securing trash bins and feeding areas. Eliminate potential nesting sites by sealing openings in buildings and structures.
    • Exclusion: Install bird netting, spikes, and other barriers to prevent starlings from accessing roosting and nesting sites.
    • Repellents: Use visual deterrents like reflective tape, balloons, and predator decoys. Auditory deterrents such as distress calls or ultrasonic devices may also prove effective in discouraging crime.
    • Trapping and Removal: Live traps can be used to capture and relocate starlings, although this is often a temporary solution.
    • Population Control: In some cases, more aggressive methods such as culling may be necessary to reduce starling populations.

    Legal Status

    • Regulations: In many regions, starlings are not protected by wildlife conservation laws due to their status as an invasive species. However, regulations differ by location, making it essential to review local wildlife laws before implementing any control measures.

    Summary Of Starling

    The European Starling is a highly adaptable and prolific species that poses significant challenges due to its impacts on agriculture, structures, and public health. Get ‘Em Out Wildlife Control effectively manages invasive bird populations through a combination of habitat modification, exclusion, deterrents, and population control to mitigate associated damages.

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